The Mayo Clinic researchers have developed an online prediction tool to predict the recurrence of kidney stones in the human body.
This study was published in The Mayo Clinic Proceedings in February 2019.
The Mayo Clinic researchers were able to successfully invent a prediction tool named Recurrence of Kidney Stone(ROKS). This tool could help patients to anticipate if they were likely to experience the future episodes of the stone.
The ROKS is a calculator in which one can fill details like race, gender, age and stone history of the patient. The tool then makes calculations and shows the positive or negative signs of recurrence, if any. ROKS is now available online and also as a mobile app.
Kidney stone is the accumulation of waste inside the body due to lack of fluids blood. It is one of the most common diseases found in almost all countries of the world. It is said to affect people of all genders and ages.
Though this disease is intermittent and often occurs again after first diagnose but the risk of recurrence of the stone varies. Some might not have to go through the pain after the first treatment but some might have to face multiple cycles of pain, regular hospital visits, and operations as the stone tends to recur. Statistics show that up to 22% of stone formers will have 3 or more stone events.
Using data obtained from Rochester Epidemiology Project, researchers examined a few sufferers from Olmsted County between 1984 and 2017. It was found that most people with younger age, male sex, a higher body mass index, history of pregnancy, and a family history of stones showed the signs of stone recurrence. Also, the size of the stone tends to increase after every subsequent event.
Using this information, researchers were able to develop Recurrence of Kidney Stone(ROKS). And now, the research results have improved the predictions provided by this tool.
Since the risk of recurrence varies from person to person, this tool can guide both patients and caretakers on how effectively the treatment needs to be changed to minimize the risk of recurrence.
The subsequent episode may include acute kidney injury, urinary tract infection, lower urinary tract symptoms, and, less often, progressive renal decline over time.
“Each of the risk factors we identified is entered into the model, which then calculates an estimate of the risk of having another kidney stone in the next five or 10 years,” explains John Lieske, MD, one of the study researchers.
By knowing the likelihood of future kidney stone episodes, Dr. Lieske notes that this could help encourage a patient's “enthusiasm for adopting dietary measures and/or starting drug regimens to prevent future attacks.”
According to reports, the number of women, children, and non-whites suffering from kidney stone has drastically risen over the past years. The disease is equally common in India as well. A total of 12% of the Indian population is expected to have urinary stones and out of which, 50% may end up with loss of kidney functions.
The data used in the ROKS model is based on the researches held in Olmsted County, Minnesota. This data still needs to be validated in other parts of the country.
Although there have been tried and tested methods and medicines to cure the disease, but the risk of it happening again is very common. Thus, having a little knowledge on how the kidney stone is developed in one’s body can improve the kind of treatment he/she chooses.