Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Infection
A high dose of Cipro for the treatment of sexually transmitted bacterial infection (gonorrhea
) may hide the symptoms of developing syphilis
. Perform test for syphilis after three months of treatment with Cipro.
Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Patients who are using Cipro in absence or presence of strongly suspected bacterial infection are at an increased risk of reduction of an effect of Cipro.
Cloudy Appearance of Urine (Crystalluria)
Patients on treatment with Cipro are at an increased risk of crystalluria. Use of high consumption of water is required in patients receiving Cipro to prevent the formation of urine with less amount of water in it (highly concentrated urine).
Cytochrome P4501A2 Enzyme Activity
Cipro blocks the working of cytochrome P4501A2 enzymes. This medicine may increase the levels of theophylline, methylxanthines, tizanidine, ropinirole, caffeine
, clozapine, and olanzapine in the blood.
Sensitivity to Light (Photosensitivity)
Patients on treatment with Cipro are at an increased risk of sunburn
allergic reactions. This medicine may cause sunburn reactions such as the release of fluid from the wound (exudation), fluid-filled sac within the body (vesicles
), skin redness, skin blisters
, swelling due to fluid build up inside the pharynx or face, and burning sensation in the skin. Avoid direct exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light. Discontinue the use of Cipro in case of severe photosensitivity reactions.
Patients with Liver Problems
Elderly patients above 55 years are at an increased risk when using this medicine. This medicine may cause injury of liver cells, life-threatening liver failure, and symptoms of hepatitis
such as severe eating disorder, jaundice
, dark urine, skin irritation, and stomach discomfort. Discontinue the use of Cipro immediately after an appearance of symptoms of hepatitis
Use of Cipro with Theophylline
Patients who are receiving combination therapy with theophylline are at an increased risk of severe and fatal reactions. This combination may cause a sudden loss of heart function, seizures
, and respiratory failure. It also causes nausea
, vomiting, palpitation
and irritability in some cases. Proper monitoring of theophylline by dose adjustment is required if the combination of two drugs cannot be avoided.
Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Patients taking Cipro are at an increased risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
. This medicine may cause mild diarrhea and inflammation of colon which leads to fatal conditions. The therapy with an appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation and antibacterial treatment is required to treat Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
Prolonged Heartbeat (QT Prolongation)
Such patients are at an increased risk of heart abnormalities when using Cipro. Cipro may cause abnormality in heart rate, low level of potassium
and magnesium in the blood and heart failure in elderly patients who are receiving certain medicines (class IA or III antiarrhythmics, macrolides, tricyclic antidepressants
, and antipsychotics). Avoid these medicines in patients who are receiving Cipro.
Patients less than 18 years are at an increased risk when using Cipro. This medicine increases the risk of joint-related side effects (arthropathy
Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture
Patients with tendinitis
and rupturing of tendon are at an increased risk when using this medicine. Cipro may increase the risk of tendinitis
and tendon rupture in patients of all age groups. This risk is higher in patients taking corticosteroids
, over 60 years, and who have undergone heart, kidney or lung transplant. Discontinue the use of Cipro immediately if the patient experiences symptoms like pain
, swelling, inflammation or rupturing of a tendon.
Nerve Damage in the Hands and Feet
Patients who are receiving Cipro are at an increased risk of development of symptoms of weakness and pain
due to nerve damage in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Stop using Cipro if patients experience any symptoms of peripheral neuropathy which includes pain, burning, tingling, weakness, alteration in sensations including light, touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation. Also, avoid Cipro in patients who have a history of peripheral neuropathy.
Central Nervous System Disorders
Patients with central nervous system diseases are at an increased risk when using this medicine. Such patients are at an increased risk of brain related effects such as convulsions, increased intracranial pressure, nervousness, agitation, sleeplessness, anxiety
, nightmares, fearful and threatening thoughts (paranoia), dizziness
, and depression
. Use this medicine only when the benefits of treatment exceed the risk of undesirable brain-related side effects in patients who are using it.
Weakness in Skeletal Muscles
Patients with skeletal muscle weakness are at an increased risk when using this medicine. Such patients are at an increased risk of fatal reactions with Cipro. Avoid the use of Cipro in patients with previous history of this disease.
Patients who are taking the first dose of Cipro are at an increased risk of developing serious and fatal allergic reactions. This medicine may cause loss of consciousness, swelling due to fluid build up inside the pharynx or face, hives
, tingling sensation, itching
, and difficulty in breathing. Severe allergic reactions to Cipro may require an emergency treatment which includes airway management by the supply of oxygen.