First meet fill the pill. Next meet Jill. She is 89 years old and is suffering from several chronic conditions common in old age. Jill is a widow living alone in her longtime home. She has adult children who check in on her from time to time. Now Meet Dr. Hill, Dr. Hill prescribed Phil and she wants very much to help Jill stay healthy.
This is Jill's pharmacist Mr. mill. He dispensed Phil and he wants to do the best job he can. So now you've met the main characters in the story of Phil and Jill. We are ready to join Phil on his adventure. Phil's journey inside of Jill begins when she swallows him. First off, she may have to difficulty swallowing fill especially appears large.
Once swallowed, it may take longer to dissolve because people Jill's age often have less stomach acid. They may have slower digestion as well. Fill may take longer to be absorbed, but for the most part fill does not have a lot of trouble entering Jill's bloodstream. The trouble begins later on down the road for most older people. By the time Phil enters Jill's bloodstream from her digestive system, he has been broken down into many particles, all still retaining their essential film this the best way for Phil to travel through Jill's bloodstream is with a protein founded her blood plasma that's the liquid part called serum albumin. You can see it represented by the s in the diagram.
Because of her age, Jill circulation is a bit slower and she has less fluid in her blood. Which leads to what is called decreased blood volume. Her blood also contains less serum albumin fulfill particles to hook on to. This means that less of the filled particles are stored safely in the serum albumin where they can be released a little at a time at the target site. What we call the target site is the part of Jill system that needs Phil's help. Instead, the little Phil's stay in the plasma itself and arrive all at once, which can be a little overwhelming for Jill and may have the effect of a much larger dose, not what the doctor ordered.
This also means that when Phil particles run into other drug particles, such as Bill who also want to ride on the LBM and taxis, they must compete after a showdown. Either Phil or bill will be bumped off the serum albumin and left to their own devices loose in Jill's bloodstream when Phil particles do get safely to their target site they need in order to do their work to enter a cell cells are the Living Building Blocks that make up all of our body parts. Jill's aging cells have decreased membrane permeability, which means that the membrane or skin that surrounds the cell is less able to let Phil in the US even less of Phil is able to get where he is needed, and more of him is running loose in jails bloodstream. The blood brain barrier is a filter that prevents unwanted substances from entering our central nervous system.
As we age the blood brain barrier does not function as well. Because of this more fill can enter Jill's brain and spinal cord, which are in charge of her thinking and her movements. This can lead to confusion, memory loss and poor coordination. The liver is where excess filled particles Go to be further broken down are what we call metabolized and changed into harmless molecules, which we call being deactivated and removed from the bloodstream. Till slower circulation also means that excess fill particles will take longer to reach your liver where they can be metabolized and deactivated. This process is further slowed because Jill's 89 year old liver is less functional than that of a younger person.
The last stage of Phil's journey involves deals kidneys, where he is nabbed from the bloodstream and excrete it from Jill's body in her urine. Because kidney function also declines with age. Phil leaves stills body at a slower rate as well. Now Jill takes Phil at regular intervals, so Phil particles are continually being added to her body. Because of the normal aging factors we have mentioned and especially if any condition or disease further decreases. The function of recirculation, liver, kidneys, or target cells, it is easy to see how Jill could end up with an over accumulation of fill in her body.
Even if Phil has been doing a great job for months or years, he may suddenly reach toxic levels or cause effects that nobody will suspect him of, because of his previous great track record. Now it must be mentioned that Phil is not really all that bright to begin with. Phil particles can get distracted from their target site and end up somewhere completely different from their intended destination. Sort of like stopping for just one beer on the way home and ending up making a night of it. He may cause trouble in places he's not supposed to be. In other words, side effects.
Side effects are problems that occur. When treatment goes beyond the desired effect or problems that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effect. The danger increases As our circulation slows down with age, like it is easier to turn off at the bar when traffic is slow. And if there is more than enough fill already at the target site. If fill dissolves in water, he will reach higher concentrations because there is less water to dilute him. If Phil is fat soluble, the increased fatty tissue that Jill as an older woman has could mean that Phil will accumulate there.
Too much accumulation can make Phil toxic or poisonous to Jill. Furthermore, Phil's personality may change if he meets up with certain other pills, for example, Gil, or certain foods or Herbes such as lil while our Phil is a great guy on his own. The company of Gil or lil brings out the worst in him to be quite fair, Gil and lil are not criminal sorts either, but they are bad influences on each other. All of the eventualities we have discussed could happen Even when Phil is the correct drug taken exactly as prescribed, but we must also consider the fact that all and I mean Jill herself, Dr. Hill, Mr. Male, the pharmaceutical companies, the scientists that develop medications to name a few, all involved in jail and Phil's relationship are human and prone to error and misunderstanding. Everybody has a part to play.
In our next lesson. We will examine this more closely.