Now that we've introduced the three major categories of leadership style, I want to focus in this lecture on the personality and behavior approach. Now, organizational psychologists like me, have long known that personality and loss research to support this personality is a very measurable commodity. And that if you look at it, there's what's known as the, the big five personality factors, sometimes called ocean, which refers to openness to experience, conscientiousness, our extraversion, agreeableness, and in the old days of more negative psychology, what was referred to as neuroticism which we now in the days of positive psychology, talk about as being emotional stability. So those five characters are things that each of us can be measured on in some kind of meaningful way. From a from a personality behavior point. You, each of those factors may have some influence on our natural leadership style.
So for example, extraversion typically people tend to think of leaders as being extroverted. That's not always the case as researched by Jim Collins and Jerry porras. Found in the great which if you haven't read by the way, it's a great book. So it you can find it there also great introverted leaders to conscientiousness is clearly a trait that does tend to define people being more effective in their roles as leaders. And interestingly, in an old command and control mindset, openness to experience would have been seen as being a negative but in today's world of organic leadership and empowering leadership, being more open to express it's actually the hallmark of a of a good leader. agreeableness, typically, leaders tend to have a bit more skin in the game and they tend to be I'm going to not say disagreeable.
But there is a tendency to be a bit more forthright in their opinions about things, although at the same time that's balanced by their honesty, inner engagement with people. And emotional stability is usually one. In fact, there's some evidence to suggest that emotional stability doesn't really matter. You have great leaders who are a little bit more more emotionally stable, you have some who are a little bit less emotionally stable, it doesn't seem to work. What I've learned over the years of working in with with leaders coach mentoring perspective, if there's two key things that they need to learn how to do. The first is to learn how to let go.
And what they'll need to let go of is their need to control and they need to let go potentially of their dependence if they need to become more independent, and they need to become less in need of control. On the other hand, some leaders also need to step up. And in that case, they need to learn how to become more helpful and they need to learn how to become more conscious. Going back to that big five factor of conscientiousness. So that's the two things I'd like you to think a little bit about. When you go into reflection today, you know, are you someone who perhaps more naturally likes to control things and has almost like an innate need to want to control things?
Are you somebody who is naturally helpful in your process of working with people? And if so, how can you increase that? Are you someone who the first others in this bit more dependent in your approach, in which case you need to learn how to become more independent? And are you someone who perhaps could amp up the conscientiousness factor a little bit, and at the same time, sometimes very conscientious people can become overly conscientious become perfectionist, and that's also not the next lecture we'll take a look at the situational approaches, but now that's put in terms of personality and behavior.