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Thursday, March 14, 2019 -- BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Co-occurrence of local anisotropic gradient orientations (COLLAGE) is a recently developed radiomic (computer extracted) feature that captures entropy (measures the degree of disorder) in pixel-level edge directions and was previously shown to distinguish predominant cerebral radiation necrosis from recurrent tumor on gadolinium-contrast T1WI. In this work, we sought to investigate whether COLLAGE measurements from posttreatment gadolinium-contrast T1WI could distinguish varying extents of cerebral radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor classes in a lesion across primary and metastatic brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On a total of 75 gadolinium-contrast T1WI studies obtained from patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, the extent of cerebral radiation necrosis and recurrent tumor in every brain lesion was histopathologically
Wednesday, January 09, 2019 -- by Xin Yu, Mikhail Dobrikov, Stephen T. Keir, Matthias Gromeier, Ira H. Pastan, Ralph Reisfeld, Darell D. Bigner, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan Standard treatment, unfortunately, yields a poor prognosis for patients with primary or metastatic cancers in the central nervous system, indicating a necessity for novel therapeutic agents. Immunotoxins (ITs) are a class of promising therapeutic candidates produced by fusing antibody fragments with toxin moieties. In this study, we investigated if inherent resistance to IT cytotoxicity can be overcome by rational combination with pro-apoptotic enhancers. Therefore, we combined ITs (9.2.27-PE38KDEL or Mel-14-PE38KDEL) targeting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) with a panel of Bcl-2 family inhibitors (ABT-737, ABT-263, ABT-199 [Venetoclax], A-1155463, and S63845) against patient-derived glioblastoma, melanoma, and breast cancer cells/cell lines.
Tuesday, January 08, 2019 -- A Massachusetts General Hospital-led research team has demonstrated, for the first time, how solid stress - the physical forces exerted by the solid components of a tumor - impacts the tissue surrounding brain tumors and contributes to resulting neurological dysfunction and neuronal cell death.
Monday, November 26, 2018 -- Scientists in China have loaded immune cells with nanoparticles containing an antitumor drug for cancer therapy and imaging.
Tuesday, October 02, 2018 -- (Natural News) A computed tomography (CT) scan can be an incredibly useful tool in diagnosing certain problems and possibly helping people get much-needed treatment in time to make a difference. However, this usefulness comes with a great price: It increases the risk of brain tumors, especially in children, according to a new study that was... Read More
Wednesday, September 19, 2018 -- Medulloblastomas, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are typically treated with radiotherapy. Refinement of this treatment has greatly improved survival rates in this patient population. However, radiotherapy also profoundly affects the developing brain and is associated with reduced hippocampal volume and blunted hippocampal neurogenesis. Such hippocampal (as well as extrahippocampal) abnormalities likely contribute to cognitive impairments in this population. While several aspects of memory have been examined in this population, the impact of radiotherapy on autobiographical memory has not previously been evaluated. Here we evaluated autobiographical memory in male and female patients who received radiotherapy for posterior fossa tumors (PFTs), including medulloblastoma, during childhood. Using the Children's Autobiographical Interview, we retrospectively assessed episodic and nonepisodic details for
Thursday, September 13, 2018 -- (Reuters Health) - Adults who had brain cancer as children may have a harder time living independently and having rich professional and personal lives than people who didn't have these tumors in childhood, a U.S. study suggests.
Tuesday, September 04, 2018 -- Important research by Barrow Neurological Institute neurosurgeons and University of Washington (UW) scientists on novel imaging technology for malignant brain tumors was published in the August issue of the Nature journal, Scientific Reports.
Wednesday, August 29, 2018 -- NewsA new study could improve the delivery of anti-cancer drugs across the blood brain barrier into brain tumors.Contributed Author: Massachusetts General HospitalTopics: Oncology
Tuesday, August 21, 2018 -- Children with certain types of brain tumors who undergo radiation treatment are less likely to recall the specifics of events they experienced after radiation than to remember pre-treatment happenings, according to a Baylor University study comparing them to children with healthy brains.
Monday, August 20, 2018 -- Certain brain cancers are associated with low numbers of immune system T-cells circulating in the peripheral blood. Low T-cell numbers can be a side-effect of cancer treatment. But it now appears that there is more to the story of these missing T-cells.
Friday, August 17, 2018 -- A research team from South Korea has presented evidence that neural stem cells contain cancer-promoting mutations and are responsible for recurrent glioblastoma in human patients.
Wednesday, August 15, 2018 -- The blood-brain barrier is a specialized network of vascular and brain cells that acts as the brain's security system, helping to safeguard the brain and regulate the flow of substances into and out of it.
Tuesday, August 14, 2018 -- BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion and spectroscopic MR imaging provide noninvasive physiologic and metabolic characterization of tissues, which can help in differentiating brain tumors. We investigated the diagnostic role of perfusion and spectroscopic MR imaging using individual and combined classifiers of these modalities and assessed the added performance value that spectroscopy can provide to perfusion using optimal combined classifiers that have the highest differential diagnostic performance to discriminate lymphomas, glioblastomas, and metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2016, fifty-five consecutive patients with histopathologically proved lymphomas, glioblastomas, and metastases were included after undergoing MR imaging. The perfusion parameters (maximum relative CBV, maximum percentage of signal intensity recovery) and spectroscopic concentration ratios (lactate/Cr, Cho/NAA, Cho/Cr, and lipids/Cr) were analyzed
Tuesday, August 14, 2018 -- BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The supplementary motor area can be a critical region in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing brain tumor resection because it plays a role in both language and motor function. While primary motor regions have been successfully identified using resting-state fMRI, there is variability in the literature regarding the identification of the supplementary motor area for preoperative planning. The purpose of our study was to compare resting-state fMRI to task-based fMRI for localization of the supplementary motor area in a large cohort of patients with brain tumors presenting for preoperative brain mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six patients with brain tumors were evaluated with resting-state fMRI using seed-based analysis of hand and orofacial motor regions. Rates of
Tuesday, August 14, 2018 -- BACKGROUND: The value of arterial spin-labeling in a pediatric population has not been assessed in a meta-analysis. PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of arterial spin-labeling–derived cerebral blood flow to discriminate low- and high-grade tumors. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Web of Science Core Collection, and the Cochrane Library were used. STUDY SELECTION: Pediatric patients with arterial spin-labeling MR imaging with verified neuropathologic diagnoses were included. DATA ANALYSIS: Relative CBF and absolute CBF and tumor grade were extracted, including sequence-specific information. Mean differences in CBF between low- and high-grade tumors were calculated. Study quality was assessed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Data were aggregated using the bivariate summary receiver operating characteristic curve model. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression and
Monday, August 13, 2018 -- NewsA mysterious lack of T-cells has hindered the immune system's ability to fight glioblastoma.Contributed Author: Duke University Medical CenterTopics: Oncology
Wednesday, August 01, 2018 -- The pattern of excess cancer risk may be partly due to confounding by indication.
Tuesday, July 31, 2018 -- No clear associations were found between occupational exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) and risk of glioma or meningioma, in one of the largest epidemiological studies performed to date and led by ISGlobal, an institution supported by “la Caixa” Foundation. However, the findings highlight the need for further research on radiofrequency magnetic fields and […]
Saturday, July 21, 2018 -- MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arnab Chakravarti MD Professor and Chair of Radiation Oncology Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: … Continue reading →