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    Cervical Cancer

    Health    Cervical Cancer

    The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The virus spreads through sexual contact. Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You're at higher risk if you smoke, have had many children, use birth control pills for a long time, or have HIV infection.

    Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, you may have pelvic pain or bleeding from the vagina. It usually takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. Your health care provider can find abnormal cells by doing a Pap test to examine cells from the cervix. You may also have an HPV test. If your results are abnormal, you may need a biopsy or other tests. By getting regular screenings, you can find and treat any problems before they turn into cancer.

    Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination. The choice of treatment depends on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer has spread and whether you would like to become pregnant someday.

    Vaccines can protect against several types of HPV, including some that can cause cancer.

    NIH: National Cancer Institute

    Symptoms of Cervical Cancer

    The following features are indicative of Cervical Cancer:
    • pelvic pain
    • bleeding from the vagina
    • contact bleeding
    • moderate pain during sexual intercourse
    • vaginal discharge
    • loss of appetite
    • weight loss
    • fatigue
    • pelvic pain
    • back pain
    • leg pain
    • swollen legs
    • heavy vaginal bleeding
    • bone fractures
    • leakage of urine or feces from the vagina
    • bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam
    It is possible that Cervical Cancer shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
    References: 1, 2

    Common Causes of Cervical Cancer

    The following are the most common causes of Cervical Cancer:
    • human papilloma viral infection
    • DNA mutations
    • cigarette smoking
    • use of oral contraceptives
    • episodes of multiple pregnancies
    References: 2, 3

    Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    No, it is not possible to prevent Cervical Cancer.
    • mutations in the KRAS, ARID1A, and PTEN genes
    References: 3, 4

    Occurrence of Cervical Cancer.

    Degree of Occurrence

    The following are number of Cervical Cancer cases seen each year worldwide:
    • Widely occurring between 500K - 1 Million cases

    Common Age Group

    Cervical Cancer most commonly occurs in the following age group:
    • Aged between 20-50 years

    Common Gender

    Cervical Cancer most commonly occurs in the following gender:
    • Female
    References: 2, 5

    Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

    The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Cervical Cancer:
    • Pap test: a screening test for cervical cancer
    • Colposcopy: To see the surface of the cervix thoroughly
    • Cervical biopsies: To diagnose cervical pre-cancers and cancers
    • Chest X-ray: To check if the cancer has spread to the lungs
    • Computed tomography (CT) scan: To check the size of the cancer and its spread
    • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To diagnose cervical cancer
    • Intravenous urography: To find out the abnormal areas in the urinary tract
    • Positron emission tomography (PET scan): To check if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
    References: 3, 6

    Doctor for Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer:

    Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Cervical Cancer:
    • Gynecologic oncologist

    Complications of Cervical Cancer if Untreated

    Yes, Cervical Cancer causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Cervical Cancer is left untreated:
    • can be fatal
    References: 3

    Procedures for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    The following procedures are used to treat Cervical Cancer:
    • Hysterectomy: Prevents the recurrence of cervical cancer by removing the uterus
    • Radiation therapy: To destroy the cancer cells
    • Chemotherapy: To kill cancer cells
    • Palliative care: Provides relief from pain and other symptoms of cancer
    References: 7

    Self-care for Cervical Cancer

    The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Cervical Cancer:
    • Don't smoke: Helps in lowering the risk of cervical cancer
    • Practice safe sex: Reduces the risk of cervical cancer
    References: 7

    Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Cervical Cancer:
    • Use vitamin A supplements: Reduces the risk of cervical cancer
    References: 2

    Patient Support for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    The following actions may help Cervical Cancer patients:
    • Take time for yourself: Helps in combating the stress and fatigue of cancer
    • Find someone to talk with: By discussing your feelings with a friend or family member makes you feel comfortable
    References: 7

    Time for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Cervical Cancer to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
    • More than 1 year
    References: 2

    Questions - Cervical Cancer

    This question can only be answered by your physician after performing various tests and a comprehensive physical exam. Cervical cancer is an abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells that occurs in the cervix of females. This cancer usually develops slowly therefore early cervical cancer usually does not have any symptoms. When the disease is more advanced, common symptoms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after sexual intercourse or after menopause, vaginal discharge that does not stop and is pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody or foul-smelling. This cancer can spread to other areas of the body like the bladder and intestines, when this happens patients can experience back pain, fatigue, leaking of urine or feces from the vagina, and pelvic pain among others.
    
    References
    1. Cervical Cancer. MedlinePlus. URL: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000893.htm. Accessed April 12, 2018.
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    Cervical cancer occurs when malignant cells form in the lower part of the uterus known as the cervix. Normally it is not possible to know the exact reason why some women develop cervical cancer and others don’t; however, there are certain risk factors that increases a women’s chance of developing this disease. Risk factors include smoking, having had many children, long term use of birth control, HIV infection and being infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Having any of these risk factors does not mean you will get cancer. Talk to your primary care provider to discuss possible risks factors and learn more information about cervical cancer prevention.
    
    References
    1. Risk Factors for Cancer. National Cancer Institute. URL: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk. Accessed March 23, 2018
    2. Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. URL: https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/patient/cervical-treatment-pdq. Accessed March 23, 2018
    3. Cervical Cancer. MedlinePlus. URL: https://medlineplus.gov/cervicalcancer.html. Accessed March 23, 2018
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    News, Updates and Latest Articles - Cervical Cancer

    Latest news and updates related to Cervical Cancer. Subscribe to get latest posts via email or subscribe to a RSS feed.

    New Immunotherapy Option Approved for Cervical Cancer, Rare Lymphoma

    Thursday, August 02, 2018 -- FDA has approved pembrolizumab (Keytruda) for some women with advanced cervical cancer and some patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Addition of radiation to chemotherapy confers survival benefit for cervical cancer

    Thursday, July 26, 2018 -- Patients who received pelvic chemoradiation for the treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic cervical cancer had improved survival compared with those who received chemotherapy alone, according to a research letter published in JAMA Oncology.“Definitive pelvic chemoradiation is the standard of care for locally advanced cervical cancer. However, the role of definitive local radiation therapy for metastatic cervical cancer has not been established,” Yuefeng Wang, MD, PhD, resident at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, and colleagues wrote. “In addition, there is

    Could HPV Testing Take the Place of the Pap for Cervical Cancer Screening?

    Tuesday, July 03, 2018 -- The confirmation of a positive HPV test appeared to be more predictive of a grade 2 or 3 cervical lesion than cytology screening alone.

    Chemoradiation Prevails in Cervical Cancer Trial

    Friday, June 15, 2018 -- (MedPage Today) -- Reduced disease-free survival with neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery

    Two US regulatory wins for Keytruda, a first for cervical cancer

    Friday, June 15, 2018 -- The US FDA has approved Merck & Co.âs bestseller Keytruda for two additional oncology indications â cervical cancer, and relapsed primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.

    References

    1. MedlinePlus Cervical Cancer https://medlineplus.gov/cervicalcancer.h... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    2. Wikipedia Cervical cancer https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_c... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    3. American Cancer Society Cervical Cancer https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cervical-c... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    4. NIH The genomics of cervical cancer https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-rese... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    5. Benard VB, Watson M, Castle PE, Saraiya M. Cervical carcinoma rates among young females in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(5):1117-23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/article... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    6. CDC Gynecologic Cancers https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/basi... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    7. Mayo Clinic Cervical cancer http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-condi... - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    8. Source: https://medlineplus.gov/cervicalcancer.html

    Last updated date

    This page was last updated on 7/24/2018.
    This page provides information for Cervical Cancer.

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