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    Health    Diabetes
    Also called: DM, Diabetes mellitus
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    Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

    Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.

    Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.

    NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    Symptoms of Diabetes

    The following features are indicative of Diabetes:
    • increased thirst and urination
    • increased hunger
    • fatigue
    • blurred vision
    • numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
    • sores that do not heal
    • unexplained weight loss
    It is possible that Diabetes shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
    References: 1

    Common Causes of Diabetes

    The following are the most common causes of Diabetes:
    • destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
    • insulin resistance
    • family history of diabetes
    • overweight
    • lack of physical activities
    References: 1, 2, 3

    Other Causes of Diabetes

    The following are the less common causes of Diabetes:
    • cushing’s syndrome
    • acromegaly
    • hyperthyroidism
    • pancreatitis
    • pancreatic cancer
    • trauma
    References: 1, 2, 3

    Risk Factors of Diabetes

    The following factors may increase the likelihood of Diabetes:
    • overweight
    • age 45 or older
    • family history of diabetes
    • high blood pressure
    • low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol
    • history of gestational diabetes
    • history of heart disease
    • depression
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Acanthosis nigricans

    Prevention of Diabetes

    Yes, it may be possible to prevent Diabetes. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
    • by losing weight
    • eating fewer calories
    • increasing physical activity
    • stop smoking
    References: 3

    Occurrence of Diabetes.

    Degree of Occurrence

    The following are number of Diabetes cases seen each year worldwide:
    • Very common > 10 Million cases

    Common Age Group

    Diabetes most commonly occurs in the following age group:
    • Can happen at any age

    Common Gender

    Diabetes most commonly occurs in the following gender:
    • Not gender specific
    References: 2, 4

    Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Diabetes

    The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Diabetes:
    • Blood tests: To measure blood glucose levels
    • Fasting plasma glucose test: To measure the blood glucose level at a single point in time
    • A1C test: To measure the average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months
    • Random plasma glucose test: To diagnose the diabetes without fasting
    References: 5, 6

    Doctor for Diagnosis of Diabetes:

    Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Diabetes:
    • Endocrinologist
    • Dietitian
    • Diabetes educator
    • Dentist
    • Ophthalmologist
    • Podiatrist
    • Social worker

    Complications of Diabetes if Untreated

    Yes, Diabetes causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Diabetes is left untreated:
    • heart disease
    • stroke
    • kidney disease
    • eye problems
    • dental disease
    • nerve damage
    • foot problems
    References: 2

    Procedures for Treatment of Diabetes

    The following procedures are used to treat Diabetes:
    • Physical therapy: Exercise reduces your blood sugar level by moving sugar into your cells
    • Insulin therapy: To lower blood sugar level
    • Pancreas transplantation: To treat severe complications of type 1 diabetes patients
    • Bariatric surgery: Improves blood sugar levels and beneficial for type 2 diabetes
    References: 7

    Self-care for Diabetes

    The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Diabetes:
    • Eat healthy: Choose healthy foods and maintain a healthy weight decreases the risk of diabetes and helpful in management of diabetes
    • Avoid smoking: Lowers the risk of various diabetes complications
    • Engage in physical activities: Make physical activity part of your daily routine helps in controlling blood sugar levels and prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
    References: 7

    Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Diabetes

    The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Diabetes:
    • Do regular exercise: Lowers the blood sugar level and control the weight
    References: 8

    Patient Support for Treatment of Diabetes

    The following actions may help Diabetes patients:
    • Join support group: Share your frustrations and your triumphs with people who understand what you're going through can be very helpful
    References: 7

    Time for Treatment of Diabetes

    While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Diabetes to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
    • More than 1 year
    References: 9

    Questions - Diabetes

    There is no one type of diabetes that a person is born with, there is, however, one type of diabetes that tends to occur at an earlier age and that is Type 1 Diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes tend to get diagnosed during childhood, although diagnosis can occur at any age. Type 1 diagnosis occurs when the cells in the pancreas stop making insulin, the hormone that moves blood sugar into cells. Sugar in the blood is known as glucose and it is used by cells to produce energy. People with type 1 diabetes require daily injections of insulin in order to maintain their blood sugar under control. The other type of diabetes is Type 2 and it is the more common form. Type 2 diabetes is most often diagnosed in adulthood and it involves a resistance to insulin or a suboptimal production of the hormone.
    1. Diabetes. MedlinePlus. URL: Accessed April 14, 2018
    Share the link to this answer
    Dietetics, hypertention (under control with medication), past history of hyperthyroidism, arthritis (hand), swollen leg (suspected due to overdose of steroid, withdrawal stage symptom) At first doctor prescript ketotop plaster to my mum because she seems to have frozen shoulder and probably shoulder arthritis. After x-ray, the bone and joint have no problem at all. The Orthopedic say it might be nerve issue. Can she continue using the ketotop plaster? Or is there anything else recommended to reduce her pain? She can't raise both her arm when first wake up, the pain goes all the way to back of the neck.
    Before I answer your question, I would like to say that I have a background in Pharmaceutical chemistry and I am not a doctor. To be sure, please consult a Physician.
    Ketotop Plaster is used for Osteoarthritis, Inflammation after soft tissue injuries, Inflammation in backbone, Rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions.  If the X-ray does not identify any problem related to bones and joints, then stop taking Ketotop Plaster. 
    Before taking any other medication, please consult a neurologist and confirm the reason for pain.
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    News, Updates and Latest Articles - Diabetes

    Latest news and updates related to Diabetes. Subscribe to get latest posts via email or subscribe to a RSS feed.

    [Articles] Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes: results from the CANVAS Program randomised clinical trials

    Thursday, June 21, 2018 -- In a prespecified exploratory analysis, canagliflozin treatment was associated with a reduced risk of sustained loss of kidney function, attenuated eGFR decline, and a reduction in albuminuria, which supports a possible renoprotective effect of this drug in people with type 2 diabetes.

    Researcher closes in on drug to reverse Type I diabetes

    Thursday, June 21, 2018 -- Research at Massachusetts General Hospital looks increasingly like a long-term cure for type 1 diabetes, with a newly released study showing patients have normal blood sugar levels eight years after a clinical trial. In research published Thursday in journal npj Vaccines, patients who had been treated with the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine — an inexpensive, generic vaccine used around the world to prevent tuberculosis — had normal blood sugar levels eight years after the trial ended.…

    Old TB Vaccine Improves Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels

    Thursday, June 21, 2018 -- Investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have just released long-term data from a controversial study that used a generic vaccine for tuberculosis to reverse advanced type 1 diabetes. The MGH researchers showed that three years after receiving two administrations of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine four weeks apart, all members of a group of adults with longstanding type 1 diabetes showed an improvement in HbA1c to near normal levels—an improvement that persisted for the following five years. Interestingly, the MGH team, which published their findings in npj Vaccines  through an article entited Long-term reduction in hyperglycemia in advanced type 1 diabetes: the value of induced aerobic glycolysis with BCG vaccinations —also reported that the effects of BCG vaccine on

    USPSTF criteria fail to identify almost half of adults with prediabetes, diabetes

    Thursday, June 21, 2018 -- Matthew J. O'BrienClinicians who followed the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force 2015 screening criteria for diabetes missed almost half of the adults who had prediabetes or diabetes and not been previously diagnosed, according to findings recently published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine.Matthew J. O’Brien, MD, MSc , of the department of medicine at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, and colleagues analyzed data from 3,643 respondents of the National Health and Nutrition Examination 2011 to 2014 Survey who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. These

    Empagliflozin, Linagliptin Combination Therapy vs Linagliptin Monotherapy for Type 2 Diabetes

    Thursday, June 21, 2018 -- Investigators examined the safety and efficacy of empagliflozin 10mg and linagliptin 5 mg in patients uncontrolled on linagliptin.


    1. NIH Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    2. NIH Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    3. NIH Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    4. American Diabetes Association Global Prevalence of Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    5. NIH Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    6. NIH Managing Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    7. Mayo Clinic Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    8. American Academy of Family Physicians Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    9. Hassan MM, Cey SA, Li D, et al. Association of diabetes duration and diabetes treatment with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2010;116(8):1938-46 - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
    10. Source:

    Last updated date

    This page was last updated on 6/22/2018.
    This page provides information for Diabetes.