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Health    Diabetes
Also called: DM, Diabetes mellitus
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Are you suffering from Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.

Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Symptoms of Diabetes

The following features are indicative of Diabetes:
  • increased thirst and urination
  • increased hunger
  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
  • sores that do not heal
  • unexplained weight loss
It is possible that Diabetes shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
References: 1

Common Causes of Diabetes

The following are the most common causes of Diabetes:
  • destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas
  • insulin resistance
  • family history of diabetes
  • overweight
  • lack of physical activities
References: 1, 2, 3

Other Causes of Diabetes

The following are the less common causes of Diabetes:
  • cushing’s syndrome
  • acromegaly
  • hyperthyroidism
  • pancreatitis
  • pancreatic cancer
  • trauma
References: 1, 2, 3

Risk Factors for Diabetes

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Diabetes:
  • overweight
  • age 45 or older
  • family history of diabetes
  • high blood pressure
  • low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol
  • history of gestational diabetes
  • history of heart disease
  • depression
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Acanthosis nigricans

Prevention of Diabetes

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Diabetes. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • by losing weight
  • eating fewer calories
  • increasing physical activity
  • stop smoking
References: 3

Occurrence of Diabetes

Degree of Occurrence

The following are the number of Diabetes cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Diabetes can occur at any age.

Common Gender

Diabetes can occur in any gender.
References: 2, 4

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Diabetes

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Diabetes:
  • Blood tests: To measure blood glucose levels
  • Fasting plasma glucose test: To measure the blood glucose level at a single point in time
  • A1C test: To measure the average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months
  • Random plasma glucose test: To diagnose the diabetes without fasting
References: 5, 6

Doctor for Diagnosis of Diabetes

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Diabetes:
  • Endocrinologist
  • Dietitian
  • Diabetes educator
  • Dentist
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Podiatrist
  • Social worker

Complications of Diabetes if Untreated

Yes, Diabetes causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Diabetes is left untreated:
  • heart disease
  • stroke
  • kidney disease
  • eye problems
  • dental disease
  • nerve damage
  • foot problems
References: 2

Procedures for Treatment of Diabetes

The following procedures are used to treat Diabetes:
  • Physical therapy: Exercise reduces your blood sugar level by moving sugar into your cells
  • Insulin therapy: To lower blood sugar level
  • Pancreas transplantation: To treat severe complications of type 1 diabetes patients
  • Bariatric surgery: Improves blood sugar levels and beneficial for type 2 diabetes
References: 7

Self-care for Diabetes

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Diabetes:
  • Eat healthy: Choose healthy foods and maintain a healthy weight decreases the risk of diabetes and helpful in management of diabetes
  • Avoid smoking: Lowers the risk of various diabetes complications
  • Engage in physical activities: Make physical activity part of your daily routine helps in controlling blood sugar levels and prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes
References: 7

Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Diabetes

The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Diabetes:
  • Do regular exercise: Lowers the blood sugar level and control the weight
References: 8

Patient Support for Treatment of Diabetes

The following actions may help Diabetes patients:
  • Join support group: Share your frustrations and your triumphs with people who understand what you're going through can be very helpful
References: 7

Time for Treatment of Diabetes

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Diabetes to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • More than 1 year
References: 9


  1. NIH Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  2. NIH Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  3. NIH Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  4. American Diabetes Association Global Prevalence of Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  5. NIH Diabetes Tests & Diagnosis - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  6. NIH Managing Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  7. Mayo Clinic Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  8. American Academy of Family Physicians Diabetes - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  9. Hassan MM, Cey SA, Li D, et al. Association of diabetes duration and diabetes treatment with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2010;116(8):1938-46 - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  10. Source:

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 10/08/2018.
This page provides information for Diabetes.