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Symptoms of Halitosis

The following features are indicative of Halitosis:
  • unpleasant oral odor

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Common Causes of Halitosis

The following are the most common causes of Halitosis:
  • poor oral hygiene
  • periodontal disease
  • tongue coating
  • food impaction
  • unclean dentures
  • respiratory diseases

Other Causes of Halitosis

The following are the less common causes of Halitosis:
  • oral carcinomas
  • throat infection
  • alcohol
  • tobacco

Risk Factors for Halitosis

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Halitosis:
  • areca nut chewing
  • betel leaf chewing
  • gingival enlargement

Prevention of Halitosis

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Halitosis. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • tongue cleaning should be done
  • use of mouth rinsers
  • educating patients about good oral hygiene

Occurrence of Halitosis

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Halitosis cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Halitosis can occur at any age.

Common Gender

Halitosis can occur in any gender.

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Halitosis

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Halitosis:
  • Organoleptic test: To measure the unpleasant odors by smelling the exhaled air of the mouth and nose
  • Gas chromatography: To calculate the volatile sulfur compounds
  • Sulfide monitor: To measure the volatile sulfur-containing compounds
  • Chemical sensors: To calculate the sulfur compounds from periodontal pockets and on the tongue surface
  • Benzoyl-arginine naphthylamide test: To detect not only halitosis, but also periodontal risk assessment
  • Salivary incubation test: To evaluate salivary incubation and halitosis
  • Ammonia monitoring: To detect halitosis
  • Ninhydrin method: To measure the amino acids and low-molecular-weight amines

Doctor for Diagnosis of Halitosis

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Halitosis:
  • Dentist
  • Gastroenterologist
  • Periodontist

Complications of Halitosis if untreated

Yes, Halitosis causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Halitosis is left untreated:
  • periodontal diseases
  • dental caries
  • damaged gums

Self-care for Halitosis

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Halitosis:
  • Brush teeth after eating: Helps in reducing bad breath odors
  • Floss at least once a day: Helps in controlling bad breath
  • Brush tongue: Helps in reducing odors
  • Clean dentures or dental appliances: Helps in reducing mouth odors
  • Avoid dry mouth: Helps in reducing bad breath odors

Related Topics

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for Halitosis.

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