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Lower than normal levels of sodium in the circulating blood.

Symptoms of Hyponatraemia

The following features are indicative of Hyponatraemia:
  • nausea
  • decreased ability to think
  • poor balance
  • seizures
  • headaches
  • confusion
  • coma
  • vomiting
  • fatigue
It is possible that Hyponatraemia shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.

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Common Causes of Hyponatraemia

The following are the most common causes of Hyponatraemia:
  • when the sodium level in the blood falls below 135 mEq/L
  • antidepressants and pain medications
  • congestive heart failure
  • syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
  • severe vomiting or diarrhea
  • dehydration

Other Causes of Hyponatraemia

The following are the less common causes of Hyponatraemia:
  • adrenal gland insufficiency
  • liver cirrhosis
  • sweating

Risk Factors for Hyponatraemia

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Hyponatraemia:
  • older adults
  • thiazide diuretics
  • heart failure
  • kidney disease
  • syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
  • intensive physical activities
  • premenopausal women

Prevention of Hyponatraemia

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Hyponatraemia. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • drink enough fluids that contain electrolytes to keep the body's sodium level in a healthy range

Occurrence of Hyponatraemia

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Hyponatraemia cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Common between 1 - 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Hyponatraemia can occur at any age.

Common Gender

Hyponatraemia can occur in any gender.

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Hyponatraemia

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Hyponatraemia:
  • Physical examination: To check the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia
  • Urine sodium test: To diagnose low sodium
  • Blood test: To determine the serum sodium levels
  • Comprehensive metabolic panel: To diagnose the hyponatremia

Doctor for Diagnosis of Hyponatraemia

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Hyponatraemia:
  • Internal medicine specialist

Complications of Hyponatraemia if untreated

Yes, Hyponatraemia causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Hyponatraemia is left untreated:
  • coma
  • brain herniation
  • decreased consciousness
  • hallucinations

Self-care for Hyponatraemia

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Hyponatraemia:
  • Limit water intake: Treats the condition

Patient Support for Treatment of Hyponatraemia

The following actions may help Hyponatraemia patients:
  • Educate about the disease: Talk with doctor about the signs and symptoms of low blood sodium, prevents the risk of hyponatremia

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for Hyponatraemia.
Hyperkalemia
Hypokalemia
Lactic Acidosis
Hyperosmolality

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