Also called: Menses, Menstrual period, Period
अनुवाद: हिन्दी
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Menstruation, or period, is normal vaginal bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's monthly cycle. Every month, your body prepares for pregnancy. If no pregnancy occurs, the uterus, or womb, sheds its lining. The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus. It passes out of the body through the vagina.

Periods usually start between age 11 and 14 and continue until menopause at about age 51. They usually last from three to five days. Besides bleeding from the vagina, you may have

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start before the period. It can include emotional and physical symptoms.

Consult your health care provider if you have big changes in your cycle. They may be signs of other problems that should be treated.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Symptoms of Menstruation

The following features are indicative of Menstruation:
  • abdominal or pelvic cramping pain
  • lower back pain
  • bloating and sore breasts
  • food cravings
  • mood swings
  • irritability
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • premenstrual syndrome
It is possible that Menstruation shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.
References: 1

Common Causes of Menstruation

The following are the most common causes of Menstruation:
  • rise and fall of hormones
  • thickening of the lining of the uterus
  • growth of an egg
  • breakage of endometrial lining
References: 2

Prevention of Menstruation

No, it is not possible to prevent Menstruation.
  • natural factors
References: 2

Occurrence of Menstruation

Degree of Occurrence

The following are number of Menstruation cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Menstruation most commonly occurs in the following age group:
  • Aged between 12-52 years

Common Gender

Menstruation most commonly occurs in the following gender:
  • Female
References: 2

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Menstruation

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Menstruation:
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test: To diagnose various menstruation related disorders
  • Estrogen level tests: To diagnose various menstruation related disorders
  • Endometrial biopsy: To diagnose menstrual irregularities
  • Hysteroscopy: To examine the inside of the uterus
  • Saline infusion sonohysterography: To diagnose menstrual irregularities
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography: Ultrasound imaging to diagnose menstrual irregularities
References: 1, 2, 3

Doctor for Diagnosis of Menstruation

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Menstruation:
  • Gynecologist

Complications of Menstruation if Untreated

It is not know if Menstruation causes complications if left untreated.

Self-care for Menstruation

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Menstruation:
  • Heating pad: Apply heating pad to lower belly area to relieve menstrual pain
  • Diet: Eat light but frequent meals
  • Exercise: Walk or exercise regularly
  • Obesity: Lose weight if you are overweight
References: 4

Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Menstruation

The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Menstruation:
  • Meditation: Helps relaxing and relieves stress
  • Yoga: Helps relieving pain
  • Acupuncture: Helps relieving menstrual cramps
  • Acupressure: Helps relieving menstrual cramps
References: 5, 6

Patient Support for Treatment of Menstruation

The following actions may help Menstruation patients:
  • Talk early and often: Talk to your daughter about the changes she can expect in her body
References: 7

Questions - Menstruation

I want to delay/postpone my period by 7 or 10 days. Which medicine should I take?
Before I answer your question, I would like to say that I have a background in Pharmaceutical chemistry and I am not a doctor. To be absolutely sure, please consult a gynecologist.

Primolut N or Norethisterone is a prescription-only pill that helps to delay your periods. Both drugs contain the same active ingredient norethisterone. You start to take it three days before your period is due, and can then continue to take it for a maximum of 20 days. You will get your period two to three days after you stop taking Norethisterone.

However, not all women are suitable to use Primolut N or Norethisterone. It is only suitable for women over the age of 16 that do not take contraceptive pills or use hormonal contraception.

Consult a gynecologist, to be absolutely sure.
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Demographic Information - Menstruation

Following is the demographic information reported by website visitors for Menstruation. Information below may include patient demographics as well as data for website visitors who might be researching on behalf of patients e.g. parents for small children. The data below may or may not be reflective of the complete patient population demographics for this medicine/health topic.
User gender
69 out of 86 users are female.
Survey Participants: 86
User age
The most common user is 21-30 years old.
< 2128
Survey Participants: 97
User reported disease
Users most commonly suffer from Back pain.
Back pain10
Sexually transmitted disease (STD)3
Chronic pain (e.g., arthritis, migraine, fibromyalgia, neuropathy)1
Survey Participants: 27
User exercise frequency
Users most commonly exercise once a week.
Once a week41
Twice a week8
Five times a week9
Survey Participants: 69
User smoking habit
64 out of 77 users do not smoke.
Do not smoke64
Survey Participants: 77
User alcohol consumption frequency
Users most commonly reported never consuming alcohol
One drink a day2
Two drinks a day0
More than two drinks a day4
Once a week5
Twice a week2
Once a month13
Survey Participants: 68
User body weight
29 out of 84 users report being overweight.
Not overweight55
Survey Participants: 84
User well-being
34 out of 72 users report having significant pain in the last 3 months.
Significant pain in the last 3 months34
No significant pain in the last 3 months38
Survey Participants: 72
User profession
The most common user profession is Student.
House Maker12
Engineer, IT or Software10
Government service2
Survey Participants: 60


  1. Medline Plus Menstruation - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  2. Wikipedia Menstruation - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  3. NIH How do health care providers diagnose menstrual irregularities? - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  4. Medlineplus Painful menstrual periods - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  5. Medline Plus Painful menstrual periods - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  6. Mayo Clinic Menstrual cramps - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  7. Mayo Clinic Tween and teen health - Accessed: February 20, 2017.
  8. Source:

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 12/06/2017.
This page provides information for Menstruation in English.