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Premenstrual Syndrome

Also called: PMS

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start one to two weeks before your period. Most women have at least some symptoms of PMS, and the symptoms go away after their periods start. For some women, the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with their lives. They have a type of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD.

Common PMS symptoms include

  • Breast swelling and tenderness
  • Acne
  • Bloating and weight gain
  • Pain - headache or joint pain
  • Food cravings
  • Irritability, mood swings, crying spells, depression

No one knows what causes PMS, but hormonal changes trigger the symptoms. No single PMS treatment works for everyone. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen may help ease cramps, headaches, backaches and breast tenderness. Exercising, getting enough sleep, and avoiding salt, caffeine, and alcohol can also help.

Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

The following features are indicative of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • tension
  • crying spells
  • depressed mood
  • mood swings
  • anger
  • appetite changes
  • food cravings
  • insomnia
  • social withdrawal
  • poor concentration
  • joint or muscle pain
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • weight gain related to fluid retention
  • abdominal bloating
  • breast tenderness
  • acne flare-ups
  • constipation
  • diarrhea

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Common Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome

The following are the most common causes of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • hormonal fluctuations
  • chemical changes in the brain
  • depression

Risk Factors for Premenstrual Syndrome

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • alcohol consumption
  • intake of high salt diet
  • caffeine consumption

Prevention of Premenstrual Syndrome

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Premenstrual Syndrome. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • limiting alcohol consumption
  • limiting caffeine intake
  • limiting salt and salty foods
  • eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and whole grain
  • regularly exercise
  • eat a calcium-rich diet

Occurrence of Premenstrual Syndrome

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Premenstrual Syndrome cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Premenstrual Syndrome most commonly occurs in the following age group:
  • Aged between 20-50 years

Common Gender

Premenstrual Syndrome most commonly occurs in the following gender:
  • Female

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Premenstrual Syndrome

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • Premenstrual Syndrome symptom tracker: Records the premenstrual symptoms and diagnose the premenstrual syndrome

Doctor for Diagnosis of Premenstrual Syndrome

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • Gynecologist

Complications of Premenstrual Syndrome if untreated

Yes, Premenstrual Syndrome causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Premenstrual Syndrome is left untreated:
  • premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Self-care for Premenstrual Syndrome

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • Exercise regularly: Strengthen the muscles and helps in relieving your symptoms
  • Avoid smoking
  • Get plenty of sleep: Helps in lowering the stress

Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Premenstrual Syndrome:
  • Practicing acupuncture technique: Provides relief from the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome
  • Take Calcium with Vitamin D: Helps in relieving the premenstrual symptoms
  • Using herbal remedies like ginkgo, ginger, chasteberry and evening primrose oil: Provides relief of premenstrual symptoms

Time for Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Premenstrual Syndrome to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • Within 1 week

Related Topics

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for Premenstrual Syndrome.

Related Topics

Premenstrual syndrome - 1 learning sets

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