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An inflammatory process affecting the kidney. The cause is most often bacterial, but may also be fungal in nature. Signs and symptoms may include fever, chills, flank pain, painful and frequent urination, cloudy or bloody urine, and confusion.

Symptoms of Pyelonephritis

The following features are indicative of Pyelonephritis:
  • fever
  • chills
  • back pain
  • abdominal pain
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • frequent urination
  • pain when urinating
  • blood in urine
  • urine that smells bad
It is possible that Pyelonephritis shows no physical symptoms and still be present in a patient.

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Common Causes of Pyelonephritis

The following are the most common causes of Pyelonephritis:
  • Enterococcus faecalis bacteria
  • Enterococcus coli bacteria

Risk Factors for Pyelonephritis

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Pyelonephritis:
  • have urinary tract blockage
  • being female
  • have weakened immune system
  • damage to nerves around the bladder
  • use of urinary catheter
  • have vesicoureteral reflux condition

Prevention of Pyelonephritis

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Pyelonephritis. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • drink plenty of fluids especially water
  • avoid delay of urination
  • urinate as soon as possible after intercourse
  • wiping from front to back after urinating
  • avoid use of feminine products in the genital area

Occurrence of Pyelonephritis

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Pyelonephritis cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Widely occurring between 500K - 1 Million cases

Common Age Group

Pyelonephritis can occur at any age.

Common Gender

Pyelonephritis can occur in any gender.

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Pyelonephritis

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Pyelonephritis:
  • Urine sample test: To test for bacteria, blood or pus in urine
  • Blood culture test: To check for bacteria in blood
  • Computed Tomography (CT) scan: To get images of kidneys
  • Ultrasound: To detect enlargement of the kidney

Complications of Pyelonephritis if untreated

Yes, Pyelonephritis causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Pyelonephritis is left untreated:
  • chronic kidney disease
  • high blood pressure
  • kidney failure
  • blood poisoning
  • pregnancy complications

Procedures for Treatment of Pyelonephritis

The following procedures are used to treat Pyelonephritis:
  • Surgery: To treat disease

Self-care for Pyelonephritis

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Pyelonephritis:
  • place a heating pad on abdomen
  • drink plenty of fluids

Patient Support for Treatment of Pyelonephritis

The following actions may help Pyelonephritis patients:
  • Join online support groups: Conducts programs to give information about disease

Time for Treatment of Pyelonephritis

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Pyelonephritis to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • In 1 - 4 weeks

Is Pyelonephritis Infectious?

Yes, Pyelonephritis is known to be infectious. It can spread across people via the following means:
  • spread through urinary tract
  • through bloodstream to kidneys

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for Pyelonephritis.

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