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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

A systemic, serious, and life-threatening disorder characterized by erythematous and necrotic lesions in the skin and mucous membranes that are associated with bullous detachment of the epidermis. The epidermal and mucous membranes detachment leads to sepsis and may be fatal. The lesions appear throughout the body and occupy more than 30% of the body surfaces. It is a hypersensitivity reaction usually caused by drugs (e.g., sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, and antiretroviral drugs).

Symptoms of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following features are indicative of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis:
  • fever
  • skin blisters
  • skin peeling
  • painful skin
  • red eyes

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Common Causes of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following are the most common causes of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis:
  • use of antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol, antimetabolites, antiretroviral drugs, corticosteroids, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants
  • HIV/AIDS
  • mutation in HLA-B 1502, HLA-A 3101, HLA-B 5801 genes

Risk Factors for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following factors may increase the likelihood of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis:
  • HIV/AIDS
  • systemic lupus erythematosus
  • mutation in HLA-B 1502, HLA-A 3101, HLA-B 5801 genes

Prevention of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Yes, it may be possible to prevent Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • genetic testing before taking certain drugs

Occurrence of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Rare between 10K - 50K cases

Common Age Group

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis most commonly occurs in the following age group:
  • Aged > 40

Common Gender

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis can occur in any gender.

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis:
  • Skin biopsy: To reveal the layer of skin blistering and dead, thickened epithelial tissue
  • SCORTEN score system: To help physicians assess the severity of illness by scoring system with seven distinct factors

Complications of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis if untreated

Yes, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis is left untreated:
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Self-care for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis:
  • discontinuation of use of hypersensitive medicines like antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol, antimetabolites, antiretroviral drugs, corticosteroids, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants

Patient Support for Treatment of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

The following actions may help Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis patients:
  • Join online support groups: Help providing disease related information to patient

Time for Treatment of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • In 1 - 3 months

Is Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Infectious?

Yes, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis is known to be infectious. It can spread across people via the following means:
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • dengue virus

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

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